Common Name: Yavatikta, Kalmegh
English Name: Creat, King of Bitters
Botanical Name: Andrographis paniculata Nees.
Description: It is cultivated all over India. Prefers shaded and moist places. Grows in Himachal Pradesh, Assam and Meghalaya. An erect annual herb, stem dark green, 0.3-1.0 m in height, 2- 6 mm in dia., quadrangular with longitudinal furrows and wings on the angles of the younger parts, slightly enlarged at the nodes. Leaves glabrous, up to 8.0 cm Iong and 2.5 cm broad, lanceolate, pinnate; flowers small, in lax spreading axillary and terminal racemes or panicles; capsules linear-oblong, acute at both ends, 1.9 cm x 0.3 cm long; seeds numerous, subquadrate and yellowish brown in colour.
Chemical Constituent: The leaves contain andrographolide (yield, 1%), however a , b -unsaturated lactone, homo-andrographolide. andrographosterol, andrographane, andrographone have also been identified from leaves. The roots contain apigenin-7,4'-di-0-methyl ether, andrographolide and a new natural flavone, 5-hydroxy-7,8,2',3'-tetramethoxyflavone. They also contain a monohydroxy-trimethylflavone, andrographin and a dihydroxy-di-methoxyflavone, panicolin. The presence of a - sitosterol is also reported.
Properties: A. paniculata has been reported as having antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, choleretic, hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic. It is anti-inflammatory, Astringent. Diuretic, gastric and liver tonic. It is also effective in skin eruptions, chronic and seasonal fevers. It is used as hepatic stimulant and hepatoprotective. It is effective in blood pressure and in diabetes.
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